Understanding and treating hormonal vulvodynia

Vulvodynia may have hormonal roots, ranging from being on the the pill , taking certain medications. or having lost an ovary or breast to cancer.

Congenital or acquired neuroproliferative vulvodynia

We take a look at neuroproliferative vulvodynia, where there are too many pain-sensing nerve-endings around the vaginal entrance.

USA: painful sex and have Medicare? Your treatment is NO LONGER excluded from Medicare Part D

If you are menopausal, are experiencing pain during sex, and have Medicare in the USA, your drug treatments are covered.

MRKH syndrome

MRKH syndrome is a congenital abnormality, whereby the uterus, top part of the vagina, and cervix do not exist or are very small. Ovaries are usually normal, since the ovaries run off a different system.

Vulvovaginal-gingival lichen planus (or syndrome) (VVG-LP)

Vulvovaginal-gingival syndrome (or vulvovaginal-gingival lichen planus) is a rare variety of lichen planus affecting both the mouth and the vulva/vagina.

Vulvovaginal lichen planus (LP)

There are several different types of lichen planus, a lichenoid condition that can affect the vulva and the mouth. Lichen planus can affect keratinisation of the skin on any part of the body, causing thickening and hardening of skin.

Lichen simplex chronicus (LSC)

Contact dermatitis of the vulva can result in what's known as lichen simplex chronicus (LSC), which is itchy, thickened skin. Removing the offending irritant is the best way to solve LSC, but additional creams or soothing ointments can be used.

Transverse and longitudinal vaginal septum abnormalities

Transverse and longitudinal vaginal septa create a blockage horizontally or vertically in the middle of the vaginal canal.


The perineoplasty procedure is used to either tighten, loosen or cosmetically augment the perineal area between the anus and the vaginal opening.

Understanding and managing dyspareunia

Dyspareunia is the medical term for painful sex, however this pain may have a variety of causes. Painful penetration can occur at the entrance to the vagina, or deep inside, or both.