Understanding and treating keratin pearls

Keratin pearls, tiny irritants formed by keratin and squamous cells, can cause significant clitoral pain.

Understanding and treating smegmatic pseudocysts

A smegmatic pseudocyst, often confused with a cyst, is actually an accumulation of smegma causing potential infections and discomfort.

Vaginal pinworms (Enterobius vermicularis)

Vaginal pinworms are the same as digestive tract pinworms, but they have wriggled into the vagina and are making themselves at home. These worms can cause discharge and itching, especially at night.

Precocious puberty

Precocious puberty is the early onset of pubic hair, breasts, vulvar changes, and height in a girl. Early puberty can occur for several reasons, which may affect a girl throughout life.

Mycoplasma infections in children

Mycoplasma bacteria are tiny microbes with no cell wall, that are highly antibiotic resistant, and are very good at adhering to mucous membranes in the urinary and genital tracts.

46,XX testicular difference of sexual development (DSD)

Folks with the 46,XX testicular difference of sexual development (DSD) are genetically female, but look (and feel) like males in every other way.

46,XX ovotesticular difference of sexual development (DSD)

The 46,XX ovotesticular genetic make-up means both ovarian and testicular tissue is present.

Turner syndrome

Turner syndrome is what life looks like with a missing X chromosome, in women. Turner syndrome is only found in females, with just one copy of the X chromosome present. Diagnosis might be made late, at puberty, when events don't pan out like they were expected to.

Obstructed uterine horn

An obstructed uterine horn is an anatomical abnormality whereby the uterus is not connected properly with the fallopian tubes.

Kallmann syndrome

Kallmann syndrome is a genetic disorder characterised by lessened or no sense of smell and late/no puberty. Girls with Kallmann syndrome may fail to get their period and have very small breasts, with both boys and girls with this condition likely to have other abnormalities present.

Persistent mullerian duct syndrome (PMDS)

PMDS is a disorder of sexual development that only affects males, but results in a person having a uterus and fallopian tubes. This ducting is present because of a failure for the mullerian ducts to transform under the influence of an enzyme.

Cervical hypoplasia

Cervical hypoplasia is an anatomical abnormality that results in a malformed cervix, which can prevent a period from arriving or cause pain. The shape and size of the cervix can determine whether assistance will be required for pregnancies.

Uterine hypoplasia

Uterine hypoplasia is the undeformed or absent uterus, an anatomical abnormality often found in conjunction with MRKH syndrome.

Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) – how it can affect the vagina and urinary tract

EBV is a cause of vulvar ulcers, particularly in younger girls, with the manifestation of this virus in the genitals thought to be rare.

Vulvar eczema

Vulvar eczema is an immune system response that appears on the skin to an irritant or allergen internally or externally.

Vagina and penis are not dirty words: teaching kids about their bodies

Conservative approaches to naming body parts - including genitals - are having a negative impact on our kids.

How to react when you think your daughter may be questioning her sexuality

A guide for parents on how to kindly and lovingly support a child going through the perfectly normal step of questioning their sexuality.

Uterus didelphys

A double uterus usually also means a double cervix and a double vagina - but not always.

Genital ulcers from non-sexually-transmissible viral sources

There are a few rarer causes of genital ulcers that can appear with flu-like symptoms, or by themselves, and appear to be related to viruses.

Congenital syphilis

Congenital syphilis is completely treatable, but untreated, can cause serious and permanent health problems.