Vulvar sebaceous cysts (epidermal/inclusion cyst)
A sebaceous cyst can appear in any area that has sebaceous glands, which includes the vulva. Sebaceous glands produce sebum, an oily substance that keeps skin supple and protects it, such as is found in hair follicles.
Vulvar sebaceous cysts may also be called epidermal inclusion cysts, sebaceous gland cysts, or vulvar sebaceous cysts. An inclusion cyst contains epithelial tissue, whereas an epidermal cyst is the sebaceous gland itself. These cysts can also develop inside the vagina.
Cysts on the vulvar that come from a sebaceous gland are rare, benign, and typically full of fluid. They are most often found around the vulva, near the vaginal entrance, most often in adults, but sometimes children. Most sebaceous cysts are small and asymptomatic, however these types of cysts can grow large and cause pain.
Vulvar sebaceous cysts can occur to any person, without seeming preference for ethnic background, age, or location.
Symptoms of a vulvar sebaceous cyst
- Fluid-filled cyst that looks like a small bump, possibly more than one bump
- Various sizes from a few millimetres
- May be red and tender
- Large cysts may cause discomfort and pain
- Fluid may drain from the cyst, may smell bad
- Tampons and sex may cause pain
- Walking or sitting may be uncomfortable
- Cysts may cause itching and pain when urinating
What causes sebaceous cysts of the vulva?
Vulvar sebaceous cysts form when the oil glands become obstructed, with fluid/oil buildup. These cysts may appear by themselves or in clusters. Sebaceous cysts are not sexually transmitted or caught from another person via towels, sheets, or clothes.
Use of creams, douches, soaps, scented or printed toilet paper, or other irritants may have triggered the problem, so these items should be avoided in future.
Treatment of vulvar sebaceous cysts
The most common course of action is to take no action, unless the cyst is causing pain and discomfort. These cysts may occur due to lack of proper washing of the area, and can often be resolved with use of warm water and a washcloth to clean the area daily. These cysts are not dangerous and do not tend to be infected.
Removal of the cyst may be recommended.
Sitz baths can help soothe the area, with a bath of warm water several times a day to burst the cyst. Topical creams or gels may also be prescribed.
Diagnosis of a vulvar sebaceous cyst
A physician will do an examination and take a medical history. Usually an examination is enough to determine a sebaceous cyst, but further testing may be required to rule out infections. A biopsy may be taken to rule out anything nefarious.
A sample of fluid from the cyst may be taken for examination.
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