The science behind cinnamon’s significant biofilm activity

Cinnamon, a fragrant spice derived from the bark of trees belonging to the Cinnamomum family, has long been celebrated for its aromatic and culinary qualities.

Beyond its culinary applications, recent studies are shedding light on a new, potentially ground-breaking role for cinnamon and its derivatives – as therapeutic agents in the fight against bacterial and fungal biofilm-associated infections.

Many studies explore the fascinating world of cinnamon’s antibacterial and antifungal properties, offering promising insights into its role in mitigating biofilm-related health issues, including treatment resistant vaginal and urinary tract infections.

The menace of biofilms

Biofilms are communities of bacteria and fungi that adhere to surfaces and form protective structures, often encased in a self-produced matrix.

These biofilms are renowned for their resilience and are commonly implicated in various medical complications, such as infections related to catheters, implants and intrauterine devices (IUDs). Vaginal dysbiosis such as aerobic vaginitis, bacterial vaginosis, yeast infections and urinary tract infections.

Combatting these infections has proven to be a significant challenge for western medicine.

The power of Cinnamomum

These studies highlight the natural compounds found in Cinnamomum, with particular emphasis on cinnamaldehyde, which exhibits potent antibacterial and antifungal properties.

Cinnamomum appears to target biofilms at multiple stages of their development, making it a versatile weapon in the battle against these stubborn structures.

Early stage inhibition

Cinnamaldehyde’s ability to inhibit flagella protein synthesis and swarming motility holds promise in preventing initial bacterial attachment, colonisation, and biofilm formation.

By interfering with these crucial processes, Cinnamomum disrupts the early stages of biofilm development, potentially preventing infections before they take root.

Interfering with biofilm maturation

Beyond preventing biofilm formation, Cinnamomum‘s impact extends to the maturation phase. It downregulates key biofilm-related genes and quorum sensing, essential mechanisms that enable the formation of mature biofilms.

By disrupting these processes, cinnamon may impede the accumulation of bacterial cells within biofilms and inhibit the production of virulence factors, weakening the biofilm’s structural integrity.

Dismantling preformed biofilms

Cinnamomum doesn’t stop at preventing new biofilms; it also exhibits the potential to dismantle preformed biofilms. This is achieved through increased membrane permeability and disruption of membrane integrity.

Such actions render the biofilm vulnerable and facilitate the penetration of antimicrobial agents, thereby enhancing the effectiveness of antibiotic treatments.

Targeting fungal biofilms

Candida species, notorious for their involvement in biofilm-related infections, also face Cinnamomum‘s formidable challenge.

The compound interferes with Candida‘s adherence to oral epithelial cells, causing cell wall deformities, damage, and leakage of intracellular material. This multifaceted approach undermines the structure of Candida biofilms, contributing to their elimination.

Future considerations

While the potential of Cinnamomum in combating biofilm-related infections is promising, there are certain limitations, including poor solubility in aqueous solutions, instability, and volatility. To overcome these challenges, innovative drug-delivery systems may be explored in future research.

In conclusion, these studies underscore the remarkable antibiofilm potential of Cinnamomum and its derivatives.

From preventing biofilm formation to dismantling pre-existing biofilms, cinnamon emerges as a formidable player in the fight against biofilm-associated infections across the body, including in the mouth and urogenital tract.

Although more research, including in vitro toxicology analysis and animal experiments, is required to fully validate these findings, the prospects are undoubtedly exciting.

Cinnamomum could pave the way for the development of catheters and medical material coatings that resist biofilm formation, ultimately improving patient outcomes and reducing healthcare-associated infections.

As science continues to unlock cinnamon’s therapeutic potential, it may hold the key to more effective strategies in infection control.

Impact of Cinnamomum on Psuedomonas aeruginosa

Pseudomonas aeruginosa can be a problematic bacterium causing various infections, including contributing to bacterial vaginosis.

It’s known for its ability to stick to implants and other medical devices, and create biofilms, which make it hard to treat with antibiotics. This resilience is due to the protective matrix of the biofilm, which have led to the growth of drug-resistant strains of P. aeruginosa, presenting effective treatment challenges.

Cinnamomum has shown promising abilities to break down these biofilms and make Pseudomonas aeruginosa more vulnerable to our immune system and other treatments. It does this by interfering with the bacterium’s communication systems and disrupting its protective mechanisms.

Impact of Cinnamomum on Staphylococcus aureus

In recent years Staphylococcus aureus has become a significant problem due to strong resistance to antibiotics. S. aureus forms biofilms readily, making infections harder to treat.

Some important studies found that Cinnamomum, specifically the constituent cinnamaldehyde, can effectively break down Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) biofilms – the most antibiotic resistant form of S. aureus. Cinnamaldehyde was found to be very effective against pre-existing biofilms.

Other research found that Cinnamomum and cinnamaldehyde can also stop new biofilms from forming on surfaces like steel and plastic.

Cinnamaldehyde has been shown to have several effects on MRSA. It reduces the expression of genes responsible for making proteins that help MRSA stick to surfaces in the body, like fibrinogen, elastin, and laminin.

Additionally, it decreases the expression of genes related to biofilm formation. Cinnamaldehyde disrupts MRSA biofilms and inhibits the activity of a toxin called α-haemolysin, which is involved in biofilm formation.

Cinnamaldehyde seems to prevent MRSA from sticking to surfaces and forming these protective biofilms.

Overall, these studies suggest that Cinnamomum might be a promising way to deal with MRSA infections and biofilms.​1–5​

Impact of Cinnamomum on Escherichia coli

Cinnamomum has shown promise in inhibiting the formation of biofilms by Escherichia coli (E. coli). Studies have found that Cinnamomum essential oil effectively blocks E. coli from forming biofilms, with tests showing a reduction of biofilm formation by 99% and complete suppression of adhesion.

The main components of Cinnamomum essential oil, including cinnamaldehyde, have been associated with these effects.

Cinnamomum has also been studied for its impact on E. coli in different settings, including clinical isolates and biofilm communities. It has been found to disrupt existing E. coli biofilms and reduce the viability of bacterial cells.

The mechanism behind these effects is not yet fully understood, but it appears to involve changes in gene expression and the disruption of bacterial cell membranes.

Overall, Cinnamomum shows promise in combating biofilm-related infections caused by E. coli.

Impact of Cinnamomum on Candida spp.

Cinnamomum has shown great potential in combatting Candida infections, particularly oral and vaginal candidiasis.

Candida biofilms can make treatment challenging. Recent research has explored the use of Cinnamomum to combat Candida biofilms and reduce the risk of antifungal resistance.

Studies show that Cinnamomum oil effectively eradicates mature Candida albicans biofilms, reducing them by 99%. Cinnamomum fractions, including C. burmannii essential oil and its aqueous extract, have shown promise in deterring fungal adhesion to oral epithelial cells and resisting preformed C. albicans biofilms.

Cinnamaldehyde, a component of Cinnamomum, has been found to reduce the biomass and metabolic activity of Candida biofilms.

Eugenol, another component, has demonstrated antifungal effects without cytotoxicity to human cells. Cinnamomum essential oil has been effective in inhibiting germ tube formation, adhesion, and biofilm construction of Candida species.

Some studies have explored the molecular interactions between Candida and Cinnamomum components. Molecular docking simulations have shown that cinnamaldehyde interacts with adhesive proteins in Candida, impairing its ability to form biofilms.

Additionally, cinnamaldehyde has been found to affect cellular targets within fungal cells and nuclei, inhibiting biofilm formation.

Overall, Cinnamomum shows promise in combating Candida biofilms, potentially offering new avenues for managing Candida infections. However, further research is needed to fully understand the mechanisms behind these effects.


  1. 1.
    Kot B, Wierzchowska K, Grużewska A, Lohinau D. The effects of selected phytochemicals on biofilm formed by five methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Natural Product Research. Published online June 18, 2017:1299-1302. doi:10.1080/14786419.2017.1340282
  2. 2.
    García-Salinas S, Elizondo-Castillo H, Arruebo M, Mendoza G, Irusta S. Evaluation of the Antimicrobial Activity and Cytotoxicity of Different Components of Natural Origin Present in Essential Oils. Molecules. Published online June 8, 2018:1399. doi:10.3390/molecules23061399
  3. 3.
    Jia P, Xue YJ, Duan XJ, Shao SH. Effect of cinnamaldehyde on biofilm formation and sarA expression by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Letters in Applied Microbiology. Published online August 8, 2011:409-416. doi:10.1111/j.1472-765x.2011.03122.x
  4. 4.
    Rubini D, Banu SF, Nisha P, et al. Essential oils from unexplored aromatic plants quench biofilm formation and virulence of Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Microbial Pathogenesis. Published online September 2018:162-173. doi:10.1016/j.micpath.2018.06.028
  5. 5.
    Caiazza NC, O’Toole GA. Alpha-Toxin Is Required for Biofilm Formation by            Staphylococcus aureus. J Bacteriol. Published online May 15, 2003:3214-3217. doi:10.1128/jb.185.10.3214-3217.2003
  6. 6.
    Didehdar M, Chegini Z, Tabaeian SP, Razavi S, Shariati A. Cinnamomum: The New Therapeutic Agents for Inhibition of Bacterial and Fungal Biofilm-Associated Infection. Front Cell Infect Microbiol. Published online July 8, 2022. doi:10.3389/fcimb.2022.930624
  7. 7.
    Wang L, Zhang K, Zhang K, et al. Antibacterial Activity of Cinnamomum camphora Essential Oil on Escherichia coli During Planktonic Growth and Biofilm Formation. Front Microbiol. Published online November 12, 2020. doi:10.3389/fmicb.2020.561002
  8. 8.
    Lu C, Liu H, Shangguan W, Chen S, Zhong Q. Antibiofilm activities of the cinnamon extract against Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Escherichia coli. Arch Microbiol. Published online August 9, 2020:125-135. doi:10.1007/s00203-020-02008-5
  9. 9.
    Marchese A, Barbieri R, Coppo E, et al. Antimicrobial activity of eugenol and essential oils containing eugenol: A mechanistic viewpoint. Critical Reviews in Microbiology. Published online March 27, 2017:668-689. doi:10.1080/1040841x.2017.1295225
  10. 10.
    El-Baz AM, Mosbah RA, Goda RM, et al. Back to Nature: Combating Candida albicans Biofilm, Phospholipase and Hemolysin Using Plant Essential Oils. Antibiotics. Published online January 15, 2021:81. doi:10.3390/antibiotics10010081
  11. 11.
    Kim YG, Lee JH, Kim SI, Baek KH, Lee J. Cinnamon  bark oil and its components inhibit biofilm formation and toxin production. International Journal of Food Microbiology. Published online February 2015:30-39. doi:10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro.2014.11.028
  12. 12.
    Pourkhosravani E, Dehghan Nayeri F, Mohammadi Bazargani M. Decoding antibacterial and antibiofilm properties of cinnamon and cardamom essential oils: a combined molecular docking and experimental study. AMB Expr. Published online October 26, 2021. doi:10.1186/s13568-021-01305-6
  13. 13.
    da Nóbrega Alves D, Monteiro AFM, Andrade PN, et al. Docking Prediction, Antifungal Activity, Anti-Biofilm Effects on Candida spp., and Toxicity against Human Cells of Cinnamaldehyde. Molecules. Published online December 16, 2020:5969. doi:10.3390/molecules25245969
  14. 14.
    Wijesinghe G, Oliveira T, Maia F, et al. Efficacy of true cinnamon (Cinnamomum verum) leaf essential oil as a therapeutic alternative for Candida biofilm infections. Iranian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences. Published online May 2021. doi:10.22038/ijbms.2021.53981.12138
  15. 15.
    Kosari F, Taheri M, Moradi A, Hakimi Alni R, Alikhani MY. Evaluation of cinnamon extract effects on clbB gene expression and biofilm formation in Escherichia coli strains isolated from colon cancer patients. BMC Cancer. Published online March 30, 2020. doi:10.1186/s12885-020-06736-1
  16. 16.
    Choonharuangdej S, Srithavaj T, Thummawanit S. Fungicidal and inhibitory efficacy of cinnamon and lemongrass essential oils on Candida albicans biofilm established on acrylic resin: An in vitro study. The Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published online April 2021:707.e1-707.e6. doi:10.1016/j.prosdent.2020.12.017
  17. 17.
    Miranda-Cadena K, Marcos-Arias C, Mateo E, Aguirre JM, Quindós G, Eraso E. Prevalence and antifungal susceptibility profiles of Candida glabrata, Candida parapsilosis and their close-related species in oral candidiasis. Archives of Oral Biology. Published online November 2018:100-107. doi:10.1016/j.archoralbio.2018.07.017
  18. 18.
    Olszewska MA, Gędas A, Simões M. The Effects of Eugenol, Trans-Cinnamaldehyde, Citronellol, and Terpineol on Escherichia coli Biofilm Control as Assessed by Culture-Dependent and -Independent Methods. Molecules. Published online June 6, 2020:2641. doi:10.3390/molecules25112641
  19. 19.
    Shariati A, Moradabadi A, Azimi T, Ghaznavi-Rad E. Wound healing properties and antimicrobial activity of platelet-derived biomaterials. Sci Rep. Published online January 23, 2020. doi:10.1038/s41598-020-57559-w

Original price was: USD $9.95.Current price is: USD $0.00. ex GST/VAT/TAX
Original price was: USD $9.99.Current price is: USD $0.00. ex GST/VAT/TAX
Veronica Danger, BHSc(N) Naturopathic Practitioner

Veronica Danger, BHSc(N) Naturopathic Practitioner

Veronica Danger is a qualified naturopath specialising in vulvovaginal health. Veronica earned her Bachelor of Health Sciences (Naturopathy) at Endeavour College of Natural Medicine in Melbourne, Australia. Veronica is a proud member of the Australian Traditional Medicine Society (ATMS).